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TonerTopUp supplies toner refills for laser printers, fax machines and copiers from the UK. We supply bottles of toner and laser printer refill kits to make refilling cartridges easy. Laser toner cartridges can be simply refilled several times to save you money. Environmentally friendly! We supply HP Hewlett Packard Brother Canon Epson Lexmark Konica Minolta QMS OKI Samsung Xerox laser refill toner and many other types!
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Common Computer Terms

TonerTopUp hopes that you will find this list of common computer terms and their meaning useful.

You may like to take a moment to consider how you could reduce your print cost by up to 87% by using TonerTopUp bottles of toner powder to refill your cartridges. Not only can this save you a lot of money, but you will also be helping the environment. Do visit our Home page or go straight to selecting the appropriate toner for your machine.

Short name for cellulose acetate, a synthetic, transparent material similar to celluloid but not easily inflammable. Available in different grades of thickness and color, with smooth or matte surface. Can be used for overlays.

Software designed for a specific purpose. (Example: a spreadsheet is an application that organizes and adds up numbers).


"Client- Server"
Architecture that allows one computer to get info from another. Software applications run on a powerful computer (the server) which is connected over networks to PCs (the clients).

Central Processing Unit, the part of a computer system where most calculations take place.

The number of bits of stored info-per-pixel (dot). This determines how many colours can be displayed at one time on a screen colour monitor. For example, at 8-Bit Depth you can see 256 colours; 16-Bit = thousands of colours; 24-Bit = millions of colours.

"Desktop Publishing"
This over-used catch-all phrase refers to the creation of presentations and other projects with a PC or MAC on the desktop. Popular software applications to accomplish this include Quark, Pagemaker, Publisher, PowerPoint, PhotoShop and Illustrator.


Scrambling and coding of data to secure it and keep it confidential.

A computer industry catch-all phrase for the business market, especially large corporations that buy a lot of computer hardware and software.

A local-area network (LAN) protocol developed by Xerox Corporation in cooperation with Digital Equipment Corp. and Intel. The Ethernet specification serves as the basis for the IEEE 802.3 standard, which specifies the physical and lower software layers.

An external web site which is used for exchange of info between say a company and its suppliers. These sites might be password and firewall protected and thus have restricted access even though they are "external".


"Hard Disk Drive"
The mechanism that reads and writes data on a hard disk.

Hyper Text Mark-Up Language. The coding used for displaying pages on the web.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, an organisation of engineers, scientists, and students, best known for developing standards for the computer and electronics industry.

An "internal" web site which allows employees inside a company to exchange and view information via standard web browsers.

A programming language which is used to create "applets" or small application programs which can be electronically downloaded to PCs or other devices as needed. (Also, slang for coffee) .


"Operating System"
Software programs such as Windows that provide a visual interface and handle basic functions such as storing application programs and moving around documents.

"Output Resolution"
The number of Dots-Per-Inch (DPI) that a device such as a monitor or laser printer can produce. The output resolution for a monitor is 72 DPI, the resolution at which images on the web are displayed. Devices such as laser printers can output images at significantly higher resolutions commonly up to 1200 DPI.

A device that draws pictures on paper based on commands from a computer, commonly used with engineering applications.

"Printer Driver"
A program that controls a printer, feeding data to the printer with the correct control commands.

Random Access Memory, a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly. In common usage, the term is synonymous with the memory available to run applications.


"Resident Font"
A font built into the hardware of a printer.

A powerful computer that stores files and programs used by other PCs or clients.

Single In-line Memory Module, a small circuit board that can hold a group of memory chips. SIMMs are easier to install than individual memory chips.

An opening in a computer where a printed circuit board can be inserted. Often called expansion slots because they allow you to expand the capabilities of a computer.


A program that controls spooling -- putting jobs in a queue and taking them out one at a time.

The ink used by copy machines and laser printers, consisting of a dry, powdery substance that is electrically charged so that it adheres to a drum, plate, or piece of paper charged with the opposite polarity.


The amount of data that can be transferred over computer or phone lines. Also cyber slang for how much capacity, time or brains someone has.

The smallest unit of info. 8 Bits = 1 Byte, which is equal to one character in a word processing program. A Gigabyte is a million bytes of stored data.

Software that allows computer users to surf the web.

A computer (usually a PC) which is used to make requests of a server.


Nearly synonymous with computers and computer networking. Digital actually means the use of the digits 0 and 1 to represent data and the code that instructs computers to read, store and operate. Data and images are converted into electronic "bits" for processing.

Dots Per Inch, which defines the resolution of images. The more dots per inch, the higher the resolution. 600 dots per inch means 600 dots across and 600 dots down, or 360,000 dots per square inch.


Technology used to protect a computer network or servers from unauthorized access.

Graphic Interchange Format - A format for displaying and exchanging images on the web. A "GIF" file is used for sending images, photos or graphics in compressed format via e-mail or for display on the web.

"Hard Disk"
A magnetic disk on which you can store computer data. The term hard is used to distinguish it from a soft, or floppy, disk.


A compression technique used for photos that can reduce file size by 10 times or more. A "JPEG" image is one that is compressed for easy sending via e-mail. However, every time a JPEG file is opened it can lose integrity.

"Laser Printer"
A type of printer that utilises a laser beam to produce an image on a drum. The light of the laser alters an electrical charge on the drum , which is then rolled through a reservoir of toner, which is picked up by the charged portions of the drum. The toner is transferred to the paper and fused using heat and pressure.

A group of two or more computer systems linked together. These include local-area networks (LANs), in which computers are close together, and wide-area networks (WANs), in which the computers are farther apart and connected by telephone lines or radio waves.


Any of the dots that make up an image, as on a monitor screen.

The word "platform" is used to refer to either the basic hardware, software, or a combination of technologies used to produce a computer product.


The shape of a local-area network (LAN) or other communications system. For instance, Ring Topology, in which all devices are connected to one another in the shape of a ring.

"URL" or "Universal Resource Locator" is an address on the internet or world wide web, .ie.


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